The process of acquiring competence requires experimentation in two different yet interdependent contexts, namely: the acquisition of competences in both professional and academic fields. This gap, shared by the two contexts, is where the professional and the academic identities merge (Zabalza, 2013, p.140). Likewise, we consider the object of study of reflective and explanatory competence in virtual collaboration platforms, interrelated with digital competence in the areas of Information and Information Literacy and Security (DigComp 2.0. European Framework).
University professors often identify the need for comprehensive training in both competences, which need to be acquired in a single integrated identity, albeit taking place in different contexts. Therefore, the need for methodologies that combine these two spaces becomes apparent, at the same time as technological tools are used in the Knowledge Society, especially in companies and work-practice centers. This research study suggests the need for flexibility in university teaching methods, by implementing models and technologies that are being used in informal and professional contexts in the academic field, as well as designing a PLE-multimedia portfolio (Cebrián de la Serna, 2017).
In this line, multimedia PLE-portfolios provide a methodology to document and assess professional learning based on scientific argumentation and using different multimedia resources based on the Internet as a Personal Learning Environment (PLE), and with the purpose of keeping this practice in life-long learning. Under the “multimedia” name, this study intends to highlight the importance of the current multimedia codes when it comes to collecting learning evidence and generating multimedia knowledge (audio, video, text, images, etc.). Multimedia codes are used every day in informal learning; for instance, when we exchange experiences, meanings, information, data, images and videos via WhatsApp. The aim is to use these skills or competences in formal learning at university. Formal learning should consider professional quality standards and criteria when sharing assessment, evaluation, etc.; along with reasoning, justification and argumentation based on scientific and academic knowledge. In other words, not every technology is valid just because it is the latest product launched; it also needs to create an impact that will be assessed using scientific and pedagogical criteria. The image below attempts to show this formal, collaborative environment of data, information, multimedia, opinions and argument exchange.
Sharing data, assessments, criteria and standards becomes a professional exercise and a competence that is acquired in the two contexts of initial teacher training (in the theoretical classes of the university and in external practice in educational centers or companies). educational institutions); at the same time, it represents an opportunity for deeper learning related to professional problems (Faulkner, Aziz, Waye & Smith, 2013). In this exchange of information, data and criteria learning, there is nothing like using digital rubrics such as Corubric.com, to facilitate sharing and applying criteria on formative assessments, together with Coannotation.com and Annotation Studio to document learning evidence based on multimedia codes, analyses and debates using video and text annotations collectives.
Academic tutors and professional researchers are aware of pre-service teachers’ need to experiment competence acquisition in a flexible way, so that they can apply these competences in formal and informal contexts. Given that the very nature of the process of acquiring competences requires this, and also because technological innovations are already integrated into our social, family and professional lives, pre-service teachers need to messages that proliferate on the Internet critically, and convert their practices into a professional and reasoned use.
The knowledge society requires us to learn about how we learn, solve problems we have never seen before, etc. To do so, there is nothing like discussing the practice of the use of ICT (Bartolomé, Martínez-Figueira & Tellado-González, 2014) with collaborative rubrics (Özçinar, 2015), as well as of videos and texts with multimedia annotations. This study follows the literature on argumentation in teacher practice (Nussbaum, Sinatra & Poliquin, 2008, Liu & Stapleton, 2014), but also goes to the limits of innovation and addresses issues involved in technologies, in order to develop reflective and argumentation processes that are required in the knowledge society. For the purpose of this study, the practice that takes place in a university course will be called “internal practice”, whereas the practice carried out in a professional context will be called “external practice”, according to Tejada (2012). Pre-service teachers’ analyses, thoughts and conclusions must be constructed from scientific justifications and should be based on good professional practice (Cebrián-Robles, Pérez-Galán & Cebrián-de-la-Serna, 2017).
Bartolomé, A., Martínez-Figueira, E., & Tellado-González, F. (2014). La evaluación del aprendizaje en red mediante blogs y rúbricas: ¿complementos o suplementos? REDU. Revista De Docencia Universitaria, 12(1), 159-176.
Buendía Eisman, L., Colás Bravo, P., & Hernández Pina, F. (1998). Métodos de investigación en psicopedagogía. Madrid: McGraw-Hill.
Cebrián-Robles, D., Pérez-Galán, R. & Cebrián-de-la-Serna, M. (2017) Estudio de la comunicación en la evaluación de los diarios de prácticas que favorecen la argumentación. Revista Prácticum, 2(1). 1-21.
Cebrián de la Serna, M. (2017). Recursos tecnológicos para un Ple-portafolios multimedia de calidad para el prácticum y las prácticas externas. Recursos para un prácticum de calidad. Reppe: Pontevedra. Pp. 34-48. https://goo.gl/AbjWPz
Faulkner, M., Aziz, S. M., Waye, V., & Smith, E. (2013). Exploring ways that ePortfolios can support the progressive development of graduate qualities and professional competencies. Higher Education Research & Development, 32(6), 871–887. doi: 10.1080/07294360.2013.806437
Fundación Telefónica (2016). Top 100 – Innovaciones educativas 2016 Educar para la sociedad digital. https://goo.gl/um5aWX
Liu, F., & Stapleton, P. (2014). Counter argumentation and the cultivation of critical thinking in argumentative writing: Investigating washback from a high-stakes test. System, 45, 117-128.
Özçinar, H. (2015). Scaffolding computer-mediated discussion to enhance moral reasoning and argumentation quality in pre-service teachers. Journal of Moral Education, 44(2), 232-20. doi:10.1080/03057240.2015.1043875
Nussbaum, E. M., Sinatra, G. M., & Poliquin, A. (2008). Role of epistemic beliefs and scientific argumentation in science learning. International Journal of Science Education, 30(15), 1977-1999. doi:10.1080/09500690701545919
Tejada, J. (2012). La alternancia de contextos para la adquisición de competencias profesionales en escenarios complementarios de educación superior: Marco y estrategia. Educación XX1, 15(2), 17-40. doi:10.5944/educxx220.127.116.11
Zabalza, M. Á. (2013). El practicum y las prácticas en empresas: en la formación universitaria. Madrid: Narcea Ediciones.